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Office Phone: NY (914) 738-8854  
Cell Phone for Immediate Response: (914) 272-9466

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Lead Paint Consulting Terms

Lead Based Paint
Paint (also putties, glazes and other surface coatings) which contain a "dangerous"
amount of lead, this level has been determined by ASTM (American Society for Testing
Materials) as being 2 parts per million.  Under current regulations paint with greater than
600 parts per million is no longer manufactured for household use, but it is still available
for marine and other exterior use.

Naturally occurring mineral which has been proven to have severe health effects
if breathed or ingested. Only tetraethyl lead (i.e., the kind of lead used in gasoline is
known to be readily absorbed by the skin.

 Housing and Urban Development, the Federal agency which is currently in
charge of public housing.  HUD has published guidelines for the testing and risk
assessment of lead in public housing aimed toward reducing lead poisoning primarily
in children and women of child bearing potential.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration; the Federal agency responsible
for workplace safety; OSHA has strict regulations regarding exposure of workers to

Lead Inspection
The process of inspecting a building or dwelling to determine the presence
of lead in the painted surfaces. The determination of "lead" is different for HUD than it
is for OSHA.  HUD defines "lead paint" as having greater than 1 micrograms per
square centimeter of surface or .5% by weight. OSHA has no threshold limit: any
detectable lead in paint makes it lead paint as far as worker exposures are concerned.
Lead inspections are performed by XRF paint chip analysis or a combination of both.

Xray Fluorescence: This method involves the use of an instrument which
utilizes a radioactive source (usually Cadmium 109 or Cobalt 57) to measure the
amount of lead on a painted surface. The instrument reports results in micrograms per
squared centimeter of surface. There is no correlation between the amount of lead
measured by XRF and the amount of lead which is determined by Atomic Absorption
under the current reporting standards.  Most XRF instruments are adversely affected by
the substrate, or surface which underlies the paint.  The Niton XL does not need
substrate correction.  It can also determine the relative depth of lead (i.e., whether
it is at the surface or buried beneath layers of non-leaded paint.

Atomic Absorption
The method of analysis used to determine the percent of lead in paint chips,
dust samples, soil and water.  This is a laboratory (as opposed to field) method.  The
results are reported in parts per million (ppm) and/or in % lead for amount of material

Guidelines which a contractor will follow in removing or otherwise abating
lead paint.

Project Management
During abatement it is often prudent to have a professional representing the
interests of the building owner to oversee the project.

The process of treating lead paint to reduce or remove its hazard potential.
The  three  methods of  abatement  are  removal,
  or  taking  the  lead  off  the  surface, 
which is enclosing the lead paint behind or within an impermeable covering,
and replacement
 which is the process of removing the building component and replacing
it with a new piece.

Air Monitoring
Collecting samples of air for the purposes of determining the quantity of
lead dust.  Air samples are collected either in the breathing zone of workers (personal 
air samples) or in large areas.  During an abatement project it is customary to have air
samples taken outside the work area to ensure and document that the lead dust did not
migrate to other unprotected areas.

Clearance Sampling / Wipe Sampling
After a lead abatement action, it is customary (required by HUD) to take
wipe samples of measured areas of the room to determine the residual levels of lead.
The samples are analyzed by atoms absorption, and results are reported in micrograms
per square foot.  The current EPA recommendations for clearance are:

               Dust-lead hazard -   40 pg/square foot on floors
                                            250 pg/square foot on window sills
                                            400 pg/square foot for window troughs

                Soil-lead hazard -   400 parts per million (ppm) for bare soil play areas
                                             1200 ppm average in te rest of the yard            

If you have questions or need additional information, please contact me.

NOLASCO Painting

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Office Phone: 

(914) 738-8854

Cell Phone: 

(914) 272-9466  (For Immediate Response)


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